Here, we are going to talk about black holes – we will investigate what exactly they are and what properties they have, and whether or not they are capable of releasing any kind of radiation.
What Is A Black Hole?
So, a black hole is a part of space where gravity will pull a lot – so much so that light will not be able to get out.
It is true that gravity is so powerful due to the fact that the matter is squashed into a small space. This can occur when a star is dying.
Due to the fact that light can’t get out, people can’t actually see black holes. They are invisible to the human eye.
This is why telescopic space equipment has to be used to help us to locate black holes.
In fact, these tools will enable you to see how stars that are especially close to the black holes can act differently than the other stars.
Are Black Holes Big?
Here’s the thing, black holes can really vary in size, and they can be pretty huge or they can be minuscule.
In fact, scientists predict that the smallest black holes can be the same size as a single atom.
o, the black holes might seem small in size – but they have the span of a huge mountain.
You might also be familiar with the fact that another type of black hole can be referred to as ‘stellar’, and this type of black hole has a mass that can be twenty times more than the size of the sun itself.
There can be a lot of stellar mass black holes within the Earth’s galaxy – this is known as the Milky Way.
It is important to note that the largest black holes are named ‘supermassive,’ and these black holes have masses that are the equivalent of more than one million suns together.
Pretty big, right?! In fact, scientists have even found proof every single large galaxy has its own supermassive black hole right at its middle.
The supermassive black hole which is in the middle of the Milky Way galaxy is named Sagittarius, and this possesses a mass that is equal to approximately four million suns.
This kind of mass is something that would fit into an especially big ball that can hold a few MILLION Earths!
Let’s Talk About The Formation Of Black Holes
Scientists think that the smaller black holes were made when the universe started – and stellar black holes would be made when the middle of the bigger stars collapses in on itself.
So, when this occurs, this is what creates a supernova – this is an explosive star that sends some of the star right into space.
In fact, scientists actually think that supermassive black holes were formed at the same time as the very galaxy that they reside in.
How Do We Know That Black Holes Are Really There?
This is a pretty common question – followed by ‘if black holes are dark in color, then how do we know that they are present?’
So, a black hole can’t actually be observed due to the strong gravity that sucks all of the light into the middle of the black hole.
However, scientists are able to spot the ways in which strong gravity affects and influences not just the stars, but also the gas surrounding a black hole.
It is true that scientists can also study stars in order to determine whether or not they are floating around a black hole.
In addition to this, when a black hole and a star are especially close together, then light that has a high-energy level is created.
It is true that this kind of light can’t actually be seen by the naked human eye.
This is the reason why scientists will utilize satellites and also telescopes in order to see the high-energy light in outer space.
Hawking Radiation And Black Holes
So, Hawking radiation (sometimes known as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation) is a prediction made by the physicist Steven Hawking and this is what explains the thermal properties that relate to black holes.
How does this theory work?
Well, a black hole is usually considered to suck in all matter along with energy which is in the surrounding area into it.
This is a product of the intensity of the gravitational fields.
In the year 1974, Steven Hawking calculated the precise theoretical methodology for the way in which a black hole could give off black body radiation.
So, Hawking radiation was one of the very first predictions that gave a secure vision of just how gravity can align with other types of energy.
This is a vital element of any theory relating to quantum gravity.
Getting Into The Theory
The Hawking radiation theory is especially complicated to get to grips with, so here we will outline it in the most digestible manner.
The basis of the theory is that Hawking predicted that energy that would fluctuate from the vacuum would contribute to the creation of the particle-antiparticle pairs.
These pairs would be essential particles close to the event of the horizon of the black hole.
Then, one of the particles falls into the black hole, all while the other escapes right before they have to annihilate each other.
The result of this is that on seeing the black hole, it will appear that the particle has been emitted.
This particle will have positive energy, and so it will get sucked in by the black hole which has negative energy.
For this reason, the black hole will lose energy and, therefore, mass.
In fact, smaller primordial black holes will give off more energy than they will actually absorb – and this results in them losing net mass.
The larger black holes take in more cosmic radiation than they give off through Hawking radiation.
Controversy Surrounding The Theory
It is true that Hawking radiation is generally accepted by those who are a part of the scientific community, although, despite this, there is still some controversy surrounding it.
The main concern surrounding this theory is that it results in key information being lost – and this is what ultimately challenges the belief that the information can neither be created nor destroyed.
However, it is true that the individuals who do not actually have a belief in black holes’ existence are very reluctant to accept the fact that they are absorbing particles.
Is A Black Hole Capable Of Destroying The Earth?
Here’s the thing, black holes will not be recognized for constantly consuming stars.
For example, Earth won’t slip in a black hole for the sole reason that not one black hole is near to the solar system in order for the Earth to do this.
For example, a black hole could be the same size as the sun – and it could replace the sun. In this case, the Earth wouldn’t fall in.
This is because the black hole would actually have the same gravity as the sun.
What would happen is that the Earth and the other planets would actually orbit the black hole in the same way that they orbit the sun to this day.
Overall, there is a theory that suggests that black holes can emit a kind of radiation, although this is subject to some controversy.
Ultimately – it all depends on how you view black holes.
However, it is true that they can produce a kind of radiation thanks to Hawking’s theory.
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