Cal Poly Receives Goodrich Foundation EPIC Award

Goodrich Foundation has awarded the Engineering Possibilities in College (EPIC) program at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, Calif. $15,000 to help expand its one-week on-campus day camp to additional youngsters interested in engineering careers. Entering its sixth year this spring, EPIC has allowed hundreds of high school students to get a first-hand look at what it would be like to study engineering on the Cal Poly campus.

“The EPIC program was previously limited to high school students, and is expanding its reach this year include middle school students who may not have previously considered engineering as a field of study or a future career,” said Debra Larson, dean of Cal Poly Engineering. “EPIC will use the Goodrich Foundation grant to create a comprehensive career camp experience designed specifically for middle school students. The young campers will be immersed in hands-on labs and activities intended to spark a lifelong passion in science and engineering. The students’ highly participatory, firsthand experiences will be combined with tours of Cal Poly Engineering and local engineering industries.”

Marc Duvall, president of Goodrich Aerostructures in Chula Vista, Calif., said that the goals of the EPIC program in helping stimulate interest is pursuing engineering careers aligns perfectly with the company’s vision.

“One of our key community focus areas at Goodrich is to encourage the study of the STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) disciplines by young people,” he said. “Studies show that students often find their career interests during the formative middle school years. EPIC is strongly aligned with the Goodrich Foundation’s commitment to start early to connect students with science and engineering.”

Goodrich Foundation is the charitable arm of Goodrich Corporation (NYSE: GR). The Foundation provides support to selected charitable institutions in Goodrich’s United States headquarters and plant communities.

Goodrich Corporation, a Fortune 500 company, is a global supplier of systems and services to aerospace, defense and homeland security markets.  With one of the most strategically diversified portfolios of products in the industry, Goodrich serves a global customer base with significant worldwide manufacturing and service facilities.  For more information visit http://www.goodrich.com.

Goodrich Corporation operates through its divisions and as a parent company for its subsidiaries, one or more of which may be referred to as “Goodrich Corporation” in this press release.

Source: Goodrich Corporation

Tellurium Detected for the First Time in Ancient Stars

Nearly 13.7 billions years ago our universe consisted of three basic elements which included hydrogen, helium, and a little bit of lithium. However, 300 million years ago when the stars first began to emerge, new elements were formed. Now there are around 100 different elements in our universe, including the rare element Tellurium.

Tellurium has been rarely found on Earth, which is why hardly anyone has ever heard of it. It is a superconductive element that was found in ancient stars near the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy. Common elements such as Iron and Nickle can be created by any ordinary supernova, but Tellurium is in a group of heavy elements that can only be created through specialized supernovas.

During rapid nuclear fusion, heavy elements are formed creating elements such as Tellurium. It is called the r-process, which occurs when atomic nuclei become bombarded by neutrons during a supernova explosion. The result is the creation of heavier elements that are not as common as some of the lighter elements that are much more abundant. This Tellurium discovery was an interesting find for astronomers, and is yet another step towards unraveling the mystery of these special supernovas.

Image Credit: periodictable.com

Reference:

Ian U. Roederer, James E. Lawler, John J. Cowan, Timothy C. Beers, Anna Frebel, Inese I. Ivans, Hendrik Schatz, Jennifer S. Sobeck, & Christopher Sneden (2012). Detection of the Second r-process Peak Element Tellurium in Metal-Poor Stars The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 747 (1) DOI: arXiv:1202.2378

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NASA Glenn Event to Celebrate John Glenn’s Legacy

NASA’s Glenn Research Center will host an event on March 2 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of John Glenn’s orbital flight, the first by an American.

“Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy: 50 Years of Americans in Orbit” will be held at 1 p.m. EST at Cleveland State University‘s Wolstein Center, 2000 Prospect Ave., in Cleveland. More than 800 complimentary tickets are being distributed to the general public for this event through a lottery by Cleveland State University in partnership with NASA Glenn.

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Glenn Director Ramon “Ray” Lugo will provide remarks during the one-hour program, which will include a welcome from Cleveland State University President Dr. Ronald Berkman. Space shuttle mission STS-95 pilot Steve Lindsey will pay tribute from the astronaut corps to Glenn. The program will culminate with a keynote address by the guest of honor Sen. John H. Glenn Jr.

Musical performances will be provided by the Cleveland Institute of Music, The Singing Angels and a soloist from Cleveland State University’s music program. Doors open at noon and a special pre-program musical performance by the Cleveland Institute of Music will begin at 12:15 p.m., followed by a video tribute to Glenn.

“This is a great opportunity for our community to come together and celebrate the achievements of John Glenn,” Lugo said. “We are delighted to combine the 50th anniversary celebration with the anniversary of the center renaming. The inspiration that John Glenn gives to millions of people along with the pioneering spirit that lives in the hearts of all who work at the center will continue to keep our nation on the path of exploration and discovery.”

On March 1, 1999, the Lewis Research Center was officially renamed the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in recognition of Glenn’s contributions to science, space and the state of Ohio. As one of the original seven Mercury astronauts, Glenn trained in 1960 at Lewis in the Multiple Axis Space Test Inertia Facility.

Others attending the tribute event include agency officials, Ohio astronauts, NASA employees and contractors, elected officials, several hundred high school students throughout northeast Ohio, and 100 Twitter followers selected to participate in a day-long Tweetup event that includes tours of NASA Glenn and its visitor center at the Great Lakes Science Center.

Following the program, Glenn, Bolden and Lugo will participate in a news media opportunity and question and answer session with the Tweetup participants. Reporters interested in covering the program and media availability should contact Lori Rachul at 216-433-8806 by noon on Thursday, March 1.

The program and media opportunity will be carried live on NASA Television and streamed online at:

http://www.nasa.gov/ntv

An interactive online feature about the Mercury program and Glenn’s flight is available at:

http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/glenn50

For more information about NASA Glenn, visit:

http://www.grc.nasa.gov

Source: NASA

First-Ever Image of Charge Distribution in a Single Molecule

IBM scientists were able to measure for the first time how charge is distributed within a single molecule. This breakthrough will enable fundamental scientific insights into single-molecule switching and bond formation between atoms and molecules. The ability to image the charge distribution within functional molecular structures holds great promise for future applications such as solar photoconversion, energy storage, or molecular scale computing devices (this has inherent potential within multiple astronomy related areas including potentially astrobiology).

As reported recently in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, scientists Fabian Mohn, Leo Gross, Nikolaj Moll and Gerhard Meyer of IBM Research succeeded in imaging the charge distribution within a single molecule by using a special kind of atomic force microscopy called Kelvin probe force microscopy at low temperatures and in ultrahigh vacuum.

“This work demonstrates an important new capability of being able to directly measure how charge arranges itself within an individual molecule,” states Michael Crommie, Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of California, Berkeley. “Understanding this kind of charge distribution is critical for understanding how molecules work in different environments. I expect this technique to have an especially important future impact on the many areas where physics, chemistry, and biology intersect.”

The new technique provides complementary information about the molecule, showing different properties of interest. This is reminiscent of medical imaging techniques such as X-ray, MRI, or ultrasonography, which yield complementary information about a person’s anatomy and health condition.

The discovery could be used to study charge separation and charge transport in so-called charge-transfer complexes. These consist of two or more molecules and hold tremendous promise for applications such as computing, energy storage or photovoltaics.  In particular, the technique could contribute to the design of molecular-sized transistors that enable more energy efficient computing devices ranging from sensors to mobile phones to supercomputers.

“This technique provides another channel of information that will further our understanding of nanoscale physics. It will now be possible to investigate at the single-molecule level how charge is redistributed when individual chemical bonds are formed between atoms and molecules on surfaces,” explains Fabian Mohn of the Physics of Nanoscale Systems group at IBM Research – Zurich. “This is essential as we seek to build atomic and molecular scale devices.”

Gerhard Meyer, a senior IBM scientist who leads the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) research activities at IBM Research – Zurich adds, “The present work marks an important step in our long term effort on controlling and exploring molecular systems at the atomic scale with scanning probe microscopy.”

For his outstanding work in the field, Meyer recently received a European Research Council Advanced Grant. These prestigious grants support “the very best researchers working at the frontiers of knowledge” in Europe.*

Taking a closer look

To measure the charge distribution, IBM scientists used an offspring of AFM called Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM).

When a scanning probe tip is placed above a conductive sample, an electric field is generated due to the different electrical potentials of the tip and the sample. With KPFM this potential difference can be measured by applying a voltage such that the electric field is compensated. Therefore, KPFM does not measure the electric charge in the molecule directly, but rather the electric field generated by this charge. The field is stronger above areas of the molecule that are charged, leading to a greater KPFM signal. Furthermore, oppositely charged areas yield a different contrast because the direction of the electric field is reversed. This leads to the light and dark areas in the micrograph (or red and blue areas in colored ones).

Naphthalocyanine, a cross-shaped symmetric organic molecule which was also used in IBM’s single-molecule logic switch**, was found to be an ideal candidate for this study. It features two hydrogen atoms opposing each other in the center of a molecule measuring only two nanometers in size. The hydrogen atoms can be switched controllably between two different configurations by applying a voltage pulse. This so-called tautomerization affects the charge distribution in the molecule, which redistributes itself between opposing legs of the molecules as the hydrogen atoms switch their locations.

Using KPFM, the scientists managed to image the different charge distributions for the two states. To achieve submolecular resolution, a high degree of thermal and mechanical stability and atomic precision of the instrument was required over the course of the experiment, which lasted several days.

Moreover, adding just a single carbon monoxide molecule to the apex of the tip enhanced the resolution greatly. In 2009, the team has already shown that this modification of the tip allowed them to resolve the chemical structures of molecules with AFM. The present experimental findings were corroborated by first-principle density functional theory calculations done by Fabian Mohn together with Nikolaj Moll of the Computational Sciences group at IBM Research – Zurich.

Image Credit: IBM Research

Reference:

Mohn, F., Gross, L., Moll, N., & Meyer, G. (2012). Imaging the charge distribution within a single molecule Nature Nanotechnology DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2012.20

* cited from the ERC press release, January 24, 2012:http://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/press_release/files/press_release_adg2011_results.pdf

** P. Liljeroth, J. Repp, and G. Meyer, “Current-Induced Hydrogen Tautomerization and Conductance Switching of Naphthalocyanine Molecules” , Science 317, p.1203–1206 (2007), DOI: 10.1126/science.1144366

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Let’s Explore Solar System Seismic Activity

Volcanoes: Io (which is slightly larger than the Earth

The U.S. Geological survey estimates that Earth experiences several million earthquakes and around 50 volcanic eruptions every year. But ours is not the only cosmic body that experiences seismic activity: ongoing exploration of the Solar System and the Universe by astronomers and other scientists indicates that volcanic eruptions and quakes (some similar to those on Earth and others vastly different) have been observed on our Moon as well as a growing list of planets, exo-moons, and stars within our galaxy.

The term seismic activity refers to the propagation and movement of elastic waves, called seismic waves, through a planetary body due to perturbations deep beneath its surface or in its upper layers. These waves cause quakes — the shaking and rolling motions that shifts a planet’s upper crust and surface. Quakes can have numerous causes; on Earth, movement of the tectonic plates that make up the planet’s surface, and the molten rock in the mantle beneath it, is the primary cause of earthquakes here at home.

On other bodies within the Solar System including our sun, seismic activity can be caused by other processes as well.  Tidal forces, pressures from cold gases and the roiling of the outer layers of a star can create movements which produce seismic waves, some capable of causing quakes and eruptions many times stronger than those observed on Earth.

The planets of our Solar System can be grouped according to their shared features and distance from the Sun.  The inner planets –Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars — orbit close to the Sun and are composed primarily of rock, with a solid outer crust.  Beyond Mars, the “gas giants” Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune consist largely of hydrogen, ammonia and methane gases around a small, solid core.

Because the inner planets, Earth’s closest neighbors in space, share a hard crust and an originally molten core, all show evidence of volcanic activity. Even tiny Mercury, closest to the Sun, reveals features characteristic of past eruptions.  Photographs and probes of Venus, with its hot cloudy atmosphere, and dry cold Mars also show fault lines, volcanic mountains and ancient lava flows indicating a seismically active past, when planetary cores were hotter and more liquid.

Composed largely of gasses, the outer planets lack a surface crust and a volatile molten core — key features necessary for large-scale planetary seismic activity.  However, in January 2011, advances in asteroseismology (the study of seismic activity on stars) delivered a surprise:  seismic waves were detected on Jupiter, whose composition – liquids and gases around a small rocky core – actually resembles that of the sun.

A variety of factors cause quakes on our moon and others in the Solar System, where evidence of past and present seismic activity has been captured in photographs.  Quakes on our own solitary Moon are caused not by movement of tectonic plates or lava, but by the pull of Earth’s gravity and the expansion of the moon’s cold crust when sunlight returns to its surface after the long lunar night, which lasts 14 Earth days.

Jupiter’s large moon Io experiences extensive seismic activity due to internal friction caused by Jupiter’s gravitational pull. Images of Io, Neptune’s moon Triton and Enceladus, a large moon of Saturn, also reveal evidence of massive cryovolcanic eruptions – explosions caused by pressures of cold or frozen gases beneath the moon’s surface.

Since stars consist primarily of gases, seismic waves observed on stars are believed to originate from turbulence in the outer, convective zone rather than the core. Some of these “star quakes” generate enough energy to cause the entire star to vibrate like a bell. Although our Sun is of course a star, helioseismology (from Greek, Helios: sun), a subspecialty of asteroseismology, focuses on the seismic activity detected there. A solar flare can generate sunquakes, some of which produce energy equivalent to earthquakes of magnitude 11 or stronger.

Beyond the orbit of Neptune, the Kuiper Belt is a region of small icy objects thought to be remnants from the formation of the Solar System. Although Kuiper Belt objects are composed largely of ices such as methane and ammonia, some hints of seismic activity can be observed even there. At 783 miles (1260 km) wide — large enough to have its own name — the Kuiper Belt Object Quaour has an observable surface area containing features suggestive of cryovolcanic changes.

Although conditions on our Earth are ripe for frequent quakes and eruptions, ongoing exploration and observation of the Solar System and the universe beyond reveal that, at least as far as seismic activity is concerned, we truly are not alone in the cosmos.

Image Credit: SOHO/NASA

Reference:

Martínez-Oliveros, J., Moradi, H., Besliu-Ionescu, D., Donea, A., Cally, P., & Lindsey, C. (2007). From Gigahertz to Millihertz: A Multiwavelength Study of the Acoustically Active 14 August 2004 M7.4 Solar Flare Solar Physics, 245 (1), 121-139 DOI: 10.1007/s11207-007-9004-8

A. Grigahcène, M.-A. Dupret, S. G. Sousa, M. J. P. F. G. Monteiro, R. Garrido, R. Scuflaire, & M. Gabriel (2011). Towards precise asteroseismology of solar-like stars Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings series (ASSP) DOI: arXiv:1112.5961
Sibani, P., & Christiansen, S. (2008). Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems Physical Review E, 77 (4) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.041106

Sibani, P., & Christiansen, S. (2008). Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems Physical Review E, 77 (4) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.041106

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NASA Pinning Down Where ‘Here’ is Better Than Ever

Before our Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation devices can tell us where we are, the satellites that make up the GPS need to know exactly where they are. For that, they rely on a network of sites that serve as “you are here” signs planted throughout the world. The catch is, the sites don’t sit still because they’re on a planet that isn’t at rest, yet modern measurements require more and more accuracy in pinpointing where “here” is.

To meet this need, NASA is helping to lead an international effort to upgrade the four systems that supply this crucial location information. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., in partnership with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., where the next generation of laser ranging and radio interferometry systems is being developed and built, is bringing all four systems together in a state-of-the-art ground station. This demonstration station and merger of technique processing, known as the Space Geodesy Project, will serve as an example of what is required to measure Earth’s properties to keep up with the ever-changing, yet subtle, movements in land as it rises and sinks along with shifts in the balances of the atmosphere and ocean. All of these movements tweak Earth’s shape, its orientation in space and its center of mass — the point deep inside the planet that everything rotates around. The changes show up in Earth’s gravity field and literally slow down or speed up the planet’s rotation.

“NASA and its sister agencies around the world are making major investments in new stations or upgrading existing stations to provide a network that will benefit the global community for years to come,” says John LaBrecque, Earth Surface and Interior Program Officer at NASA Headquarters.

GPS won’t be the only beneficiary of the improvements. All observations of Earth from space — whether it’s to measure how far earthquakes shift the land, map the world’s ice sheets, watch the global mean sea level creep up or monitor the devastating reach of droughts and floods — depend on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, which is determined by data from this network of designated sites.

 

For more information, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/features/here-pin-down.html.

Image Credit: Artist’s concept of a quasar (bright area with rays) embedded in the center of a galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC)

Source: JPL

Claudius Ptolemy- Great Astronomer or Plagiarist?

Many amateur astronomers today may not even recognize the name of Claudius Ptolemy, but the field of astronomy owes this man’s work a huge thank you. That is… according to some scholars. Others, however, think he was nothing more than a common thief.

His work, Almagest, is the oldest surviving star chart. In his 13 volume work Ptolemy puts forward a mathematical model to fit his observational data that was much more sophisticated than any known at that time. Almagest still holds the record for the longest used scientific text ever. Almagest was considered so important that the text was translated into Arabic 500 years after it was written. The translated book was found in the great libraries of Cordova and Toledo, Spain. Many consider Claudius Ptolemy one of the greatest astronomers of history.Ptolemy’s theory saw the earth as the center of the universe. All of calculations of how the planets moved were based on this fact. Read More →

The Extraterrestrial Debate Rages On

Sigh…another day, another research paper trying to convince the world that we are alone in the universe…

I came across a post last night on The Daily Galaxy discussing a paper that was published last summer by David Spiegel with Princeton University and Edwin Turner with the University of Tokyo entitled, Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life’s early emergence on Earth.

PDF Download HERE.

Jeez, where to begin? Read More →

Chandra Discovers the Fastest Wind From a Stellar-Mass Black Hole

Making use of NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers recently announced that they have recorded the quickest wind ever recorded coming off of a stellar-mass black hole. This discovery has important implications for how exactly these type of black holes work.

This record-breaking wind was found to be moving at about 20 million mph, which is about three percent of the speed of light. This is about ten times as fast as astronomers have ever witnessed coming off of a stellar-mass black hole.

Stellar-mass black holes, such as this one, become formed when large stars reach their end and collapse. They have an approximate mass of five to ten times that of our sun. The stellar-mass black hole that produced these particular winds was IGR J17091-3624. These winds are the equivalent of a cosmic category five hurricane, which took astronomers by surprise to see such powerful winds coming from a stellar-mass black hole such as this one. This black hole is relatively small compared to some of the other black holes astronomers have discovered, yet it has produced winds that far exceed that of the larger black holes.

Unlike winds found on Earth, the winds found in the black hole blow in various directions rather then in a single direction. This would send you on quite a ride!

Image Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Reference: http://astronomy.com/News-Observing/News/2012/02/Chandra finds fastest wind from stellar-mass black hole.aspx

Changing Faces of Titan

A set of recent papers, many of which draw on data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, reveal new details in the emerging picture of how Saturn’s moon Titan shifts with the seasons and even throughout the day. The papers, published in the journal Planetary and Space Science in a special issue titled “Titan through Time”, show how this largest moon of Saturn is a cousin – though a very peculiar cousin – of Earth.

“As a whole, these papers give us some new pieces in the jigsaw puzzle that is Titan,” said Conor Nixon, a Cassini team scientist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., who co-edited the special issue with Ralph Lorenz, a Cassini team scientist based at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md. “They show us in detail how Titan’s atmosphere and surface behave like Earth’s – with clouds, rainfall, river valleys and lakes. They show us that the seasons change, too, on Titan, although in unexpected ways.”

This series of false-color images obtained by NASA

A paper led by Stephane Le Mouelic, a Cassini team associate at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) at the University of Nantes, highlights the kind of seasonal changes that occur at Titan with a set of the best looks yet at the vast north polar cloud.

A newly published selection of images – made from data collected by Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer over five years – shows how the cloud thinned out and retreated as winter turned to spring in the northern hemisphere.

Cassini first detected the cloud, which scientists think is composed of ethane, shortly after its arrival in the Saturn system in 2004. The first really good opportunity for the spectrometer to observe the half-lit north pole occurred on December 2006. At that time, the cloud appeared to cover the north pole completely down to about 55 degrees north latitude.  But in the 2009 images, the cloud cover had so many gaps it unveiled to Cassini’s view the hydrocarbon sea known as Kraken Mare and surrounding lakes.

“Snapshot by snapshot, these images give Cassini scientists concrete evidence that Titan’s atmosphere changes with the seasons,” said Le Mouelic. “We can’t wait to see more of the surface, in particular in the northern land of lakes and seas.”

In data gathered by Cassini’s composite infrared mapping spectrometer to analyze temperatures on Titan’s surface, not only did scientists see seasonal change on Titan, but they also saw day-to-night surface temperature changes for the first time. The paper, led by Valeria Cottini, a Cassini associate based at Goddard, used data collected at a wavelength that penetrated through Titan’s thick haze to see the moon’s surface. Like Earth, the surface temperature of Titan, which is usually in the chilly mid-90 kelvins (around minus 288 degrees Fahrenheit), was significantly warmer in the late afternoon than around dawn.

“While the temperature difference – 1.5 kelvins – is smaller than what we’re used to on Earth, the finding still shows that Titan’s surface behaves in ways familiar to us earthlings,” Cottini said. “We now see how the long Titan day (about 16 Earth days) reveals itself through the clouds.”

A third paper by Dominic Fortes, an outside researcher based at University College London, England, addresses the long-standing mystery of the structure of Titan’s interior and its relationship to the strikingly Earth-like range of geologic features seen on the surface. Fortes constructed an array of models of Titan’s interior and compared these with newly acquired data from Cassini’s radio science experiment.

The work shows the moon’s interior is partly or possibly even fully differentiated. This means that the core is denser than outer parts of the moon, although less dense than expected. This may be because the core still contains a large amount of ice or because the rocks have reacted with water to form low-density minerals.

Earth and other terrestrial planets are fully differentiated and have a dense iron core. Fortes’ model, however, rules out a metallic core inside Titan and agrees with Cassini magnetometer data that suggests a relatively cool and wet rocky interior. The new model also highlights the difficulty in explaining the presence of important gases in Titan’s atmosphere, such as methane and argon-40, since they do not appear to be able to escape from the core.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer team is based at the University of Arizona, Tucson. The composite infrared spectrometer team is based at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., where the instrument was built. The radio science subsystem has been jointly developed by NASA and the Italian Space Agency.

Source: JPL/NASA

Reference:

Rodriguez S, Le Mouélic S, Rannou P, Tobie G, Baines KH, Barnes JW, Griffith CA, Hirtzig M, Pitman KM, Sotin C, Brown RH, Buratti BJ, Clark RN, & Nicholson PD (2009). Global circulation as the main source of cloud activity on Titan. Nature, 459 (7247), 678-82 PMID: 19494910

Fortes, D. (2008). Uncovering Titan’s secrets Nature Geoscience, 1 (7), 415-416 DOI: 10.1038/ngeo238

Fortes, A., & Grindrod, P. (2006). Modelling of possible mud volcanism on Titan Icarus, 182 (2), 550-558 DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2005.11.013

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